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Instructional Archive

All You Ever Needed to Know about Buying an Infant Carseat

Congratulations! You’re expecting a baby! Now comes the fun part of buying all that plastic stuff that comes with the baby: the bouncers, the rattles and toys, the day prisons, er, pack and plays, the swings, the high chairs . . . You get the picture. There’s a tremendous amount of baby gear out there and when you’re in that initial state of shock, you feel like you have to buy it all. At some point you throw your hands up in the air and just start grabbing because you really are overwhelmed. As a parent of two, I’ve been there, done that twice. It’s amazing what you forget after your first! But when it comes to your child’s safety, you shouldn’t simply grab a carseat off the shelf because you’ve given up hope of figuring out what you need. Let’s take a look at how to narrow down your choices.

What is an infant seat?

It’s a rear-facing-only carseat that has a handle and, in most cases a base. You can still get what we call a “program seat”: a carseat from an agency to help low income families, that doesn’t have a base. But it’s rare. Some people call an infant seat a“bucket seat,” or a “carrier.” Doesn’t matter—it’s all the same thing. You say tomato, I say tomato. Oops, that doesn’t translate very well in print, does it?

The base is installed in the vehicle and left there for eternity. Or what seems like eternity until grandpa sits in the backseat and accidentally pops the buckle and you panic because suddenly the carseat is loose! You’ll occasionally see someone in a pediatrician’s office carrying the whole shebang, base included, which is pretty funny until you realize that they probably aren’t installing it correctly when they get back to their car – and that’s a scary thought. For the record, most infant seats can be installed without the base (there are exceptions so make sure you know what you can and can’t do with your particular infant carseat model). Installing the carrier without the base is very convenient  if you’re traveling on an airplane or in a taxi or in a friend’s car. However, installing the carseat properly every time you put it in the vehicle gets old fast and greatly increases the risk of making a mistake or forgetting a critical step. By using a base, you generally install it once properly and therefore eliminate the chance for installation error that you get when you repeatedly install a carseat. It’s normal to think that you would never “forget” something important but even CPS Techs and seasoned parents can make mistakes sometimes if they’re not careful ;).

The base can be installed using EITHER the vehicle’s seatbelt OR the LATCH strap. You can’t use both at the same time. You’ll need to check the vehicle and carseat owners’ manuals to see if you can use LATCH in the middle of the back seat if that’s where you want to install the carseat. Some allow it, some don’t, but the key thing is that BOTH manufacturers have to allow it at the same time. One of the most common mistakes we see is using LATCH in the middle position when it can’t be used there. If you can’t use LATCH, you’ll need to install the base with the seatbelt*. Remember that point. I put an asterisk there so you know to do so.

     

 

Key features to look for

  • Energy Absorbing Foam (EPS or EPP foam): Pull back the cover around the head area and look for white or black Styrofoam. This is energy absorbing foam and is a good thing. You want this, but it does add to the cost of a carseat. Dorel (Safety 1st, Maxi-Cosi) also uses an energy absorbing technology in some of their carseats called Air Protect® that looks like plastic-encased squishy gray foam in the head area.

 

  • Front Harness Adjuster Strap: Look for a pull strap at the front of the seat where the child’s feet go. This is called the “harness adjuster strap.” You will be using this strap EVERY SINGLE RIDE so it’s important that you find a carseat with it on the front of the seat. There are still infant seats made with back harness adjusters and unless you live in a climate that doesn’t change much, you’ll tire of those adjusters very quickly.

  • Smooth Harness Adjuster: Pull on the front adjuster strap and see how smoothly it pulls. Is it like slicing through butter with a hot knife? Or are you actually using muscles? There are infant seats on the market with both kinds of adjusters and the ones with stubborn adjusters will only get worse with a child in the seat.
  • Weight: That infant seat may only weigh 10 lbs. now, but when you put your 15 lbs. baby in it later, it’s going to weigh 25 lbs. If you have an SUV, think about schlepping 25 lbs. up into it, over and over. Yeah. Who needs a gym?
  • Canopy: How does the canopy adjust? Is there much of a canopy? It may not matter much if you’re installing the carseat in the middle of a van or SUV, but if it’s going into a small sedan, the sunlight will be in baby’s face. You can always drape a baby blanket over the top of the handle, but finding a seat with a good canopy to begin with if you’re going to need one is worth it.
  • Low Bottom Harness Slots: The harness slots should be at or below the baby’s shoulders on any rear-facing carseat. Some infant seats have bottom harness slots that are pretty high for newborns; these bottom slots will come out above a noob’s shoulders meaning that the noob doesn’t fit in the carseat. If you know your baby will be early or on the small side, look for bottom harness slots that are 6” or lower (and check out our Recommended Carseats List for Preemies & Multiples).
  • Anti-Rebound: What’s that? Rebound is when the carseat rotates up around the seatbelt/LATCH belt during a crash and hits the back seat. Some bases are designed to have anti-rebound features. They either have an anti-rebound bar or are taller where they meet the vehicle seat back to keep them from rotating up. Rebound is normal movement in a rear-facing carseat (there’s nothing securing the carseat at the child’s head!), so anti-rebound is considered extra protection.

 

  • Built-In Lockoffs: *Remember from earlier about using the seatbelt to install the base if you can’t use LATCH? This is the time when you’ll want to have a base with a built-in lockoff. The lockoff will hold the seatbelt tight for every day driving and will make installation a breeze. Some lockoffs clamp down on the seatbelt while with others, you slide the seatbelt into them.

     

Now you know about features. Is that all you need to know? Yes and no. There’s a lot more, believe it or not.

How do I know the carseat I choose is the safest one? Are there any ratings?

The safest carseat is the one that fits your vehicle the best, fits your child the best, and has features that allows you to use it correctly each and every ride. It goes without saying that it has to fit in your budget ;). What does that child passenger safety mantra mean? The very best thing you can do for your child, above all else, is to make sure your carseat fits in your vehicle with less than 1” of movement at the belt path. The carseat must also fit your child well. Not every child will fit in every carseat. OMGosh, how am I going to know if my baby fits in the seat when she’s not even here yet? That’s why you find a carseat that’s easily adjustable and has low bottom harness slots.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has Ease of Use ratings for carseats, but those cover labels, instructions, securing the child, and installation features. I have found the ratings to be overly harsh in areas and not harsh enough in others.

Consumer Reports is famous for its carseat ratings every other year or so. While they’ve identified real problems in the past, such as infant seats that detach from their bases during crashes, Consumer Reports doesn’t tell the public how they conduct their tests nor do they tell us what their circles mean. A half-circle could mean 50% or it could mean 35% and that’s a vast difference in quality. Again it comes down to how well the carseat fits in your vehicle. If the carseat isn’t tight to your vehicle, crash energy is transferred to your child. We want everything snug in child passenger safety: tight to vehicle, child snug to carseat so the vehicle can eliminate as much of the crash forces as possible.

Should I get the biggest infant seat?

There are infant seats that go to 22 lbs. maximum weight limit and infant seats that go to 40 lbs. maximum weight limit and everything else in between. Doesn’t it make sense to get the biggest seat you can afford? Perhaps. Getting the biggest infant seat means that you will use it for a longer time than you would a smaller infant seat. But it also means that the carrier itself is heavier and the child sitting in it will be heavier. At some point, it will become a carseat that you leave in the vehicle for the most part simply because it’s too heavy to carry around. On the other hand, it will remain highly portable for longer, so it will be easier to travel with and more useful if you use taxis. Simply pop it on a stroller frame and go.

If you drive a small car or truck with a small back seat, you may have trouble getting one of the bigger infant seats to fit in the back seat. The Cybex Aton and Chicco KeyFit 30 are two infant seats that have maximum weight limits of 30 lbs. that fit very well into tight back seats.

Handle position

Many manufacturers now allow the handles on their infant seats to remain in the UP position when the carseat is in the vehicle, but there are still a few that require the handle to be down. When the handle is down, it takes up 2-3” of precious front seat space unless you are able to rotate the handle all the way to the floor of the vehicle. This terrific resource from SafetyBeltSafe USA lists the positions the handles must be in the vehicle.

     

Strollers

Ah yes, now we talk about strollers because you’ll most likely want one. You’ve probably heard your friends talk about travel systems—matching infant seats and strollers. It’s an idea that’s been around for a very long time—at least 13 years, because I had one for my first child! I know they’ve improved a lot since I had mine, but I can say truthfully that I hated mine with a passion. The stroller sucked. It was big and bulky and plasticky and rolled over countless people’s toes. Given what I know now, I highly suggest buying an infant seat separately from the stroller. There are inexpensive stroller frames you can buy to hold the infant seat when you’re out and about. Or, look into other manufacturer’s strollers. There are hundreds of strollers on the market and all of the higher end manufacturers have adapters for various infant seats. Research your stroller as much as you’ll research your carseat, then come back and thank me :). I wish someone had given me this advice so many years ago.

 

 

Sharing infant seats

Perhaps not so much anymore with the advent of infant seats going to 35+ pounds, but infant seats are the least used carseats in terms of time. Kidlets grow so fast that they’re out these smaller seats around age 1, typically. Your mileage may vary, of course, depending on which carseat you buy. Both of my kiddos were out of their 22 lbs. infant seats by the end of 4 months. Chubbos! This means that infant seats are often shared among family members and friends because they are expensive and they last for 5-6 years, depending on the manufacturer. If you borrow an infant seat, check it out as you would a brand new carseat. You want the very best safety-wise for your baby, so don’t hold back. Ask yourself: Do I trust the person who gave me this seat with my child’s life? Ask the person if the carseat has been in a crash. If so, it needs to be thrown out in a black garbage bag. If the straps have been washed, how have they been washed? Just wiped down with a wet washcloth? Great. Thrown in the washing machine? You’ll need a new set of harness straps. Has the carseat been bleached or sprayed with a chemical like Febreze? Uh oh. Bad news. Do you see mold? There’s no way to get rid of mold. Toss it. Is there an instruction manual? Without a doubt, the infant seat is still set up for the last child who used it and you’ll need a manual to help you get it set back for a newborn.

Favorite infant seats

Finally, what do we recommend? Do we have favorites? Of course we do! We install these things day in and day out! Our fingers get numb from the sheer number of infant seats we install on a weekly basis. I’m sure, due to recent weather patterns, we’ll see a huge increase of infant seat installs in 9 months ;). My point is, there are lots of infant seats from which to choose on the market and please look at more than just the fabric because one day your child’s life may depend on how easily you were able to put your child snugly in the seat and how easily you were able to install the seat properly in your vehicle. It really doesn’t have to match your nursery theme!

 

 

After a Crash: In Action!

A few months ago, I wrote a post about what to do after you’ve been involved in a crash. Officer Chris Goodwin from the California Highway Patrol provided some great tips, which I recently got to put into action on a cross-country move when my car got hit in the middle of Albuquerque.

Luckily there was very minimal damage and there were no injuries. Still, my adrenaline was pumping, and I’m glad I had Officer Goodwin’s advice in my head.

After we pulled to the side of the road, the first thing I did was to take a photo of the other person’s license plate in case he decided to drive away. (That’s not actually something Officer Goodwin mentioned, but at the time it was just instinctive. As it turned out, the guy who hit me was very nice and did not attempt to flee.)

While we were waiting for the police, I took 360-degree video of both vehicles. I mentioned the points of impact and noted some potential pre-existing damage on the other person’s truck. Officer Goodwin had said that rampant insurance fraud often leads people to claim additional damage, so it’s good to have thorough documentation of everything that is and isn’t there.

As I retrieved my insurance and registration, I found a NHTSA notebook I had gotten (and long since forgotten) at the Los Angeles Auto Show a couple years ago. It seemed quite appropriate for recording details of the crash.

The other driver and I exchanged information, and luckily I remembered to ask the police officer for a case number, because he had almost forgotten to give it to me.

There were a few things that slipped my mind, though. I forgot to video or photograph all the people involved in the crash (though that should be in the police report). I forgot to get the other driver’s address, even though it was right there on his license. (I imagine that will be in the report, too, but that was one of the many questions my insurance company asked.)

The insurance company also asked which police department responded and for the officer’s name. I hadn’t thought to get either, but luckily my husband had observed both. When asking for details of the crash, they asked about direction of travel–something I’ve never been good at ascertaining. I’m more of a left/right person than an east/west. Since the crash happened just before the on-ramp of a north-south interstate, I was able to figure it out pretty easily, but a map would have come in handy, too, especially since the crash occurred in an area completely unfamiliar to me.

I realized that in the heat of the moment, it’s easy to forget everything you’re supposed to do. I’m considering making a little checklist to keep in the glove compartment just in case I ever need it again. If I do wind up making one, I’ll be sure to share here! (Or if anyone else knows of one, feel free to post it.)

How to Keep Your Baby Warm This Winter

Snow is falling and parents everywhere are thinking about how to keep their kids warm this winter. Some climates are milder than others where in others, your nose falls off from frostbite the second you step outside. There are good and bad ways to go about keeping your kid warm in a carseat and I’ll show you how to do it the safe way here. First, let’s memorize this important tip: nothing goes between your child and the carseat or the harness. What does that mean? You shouldn’t put anything under your child in the carseat that didn’t come with the carseat out of the box nor should you put anything between the child and the harness, like a blanket. Why? Compression. Padding compresses leaving the harness loose and a loose harness means an increase in chance of injury. So, keeping this tip in mind, puffy snowsuits are great in the snow, but not in the car.

 

puffy snowsuit

 

You might think, “OK, so I won’t use the one that has all the puff and fluff behind it. I’ll use the one that has the thin blanket behind it instead.” Guess what? I tested that one too. And guess what? Oy. I was truly surprised because I thought it would be OK. After all, it was a very thin layer, but it also left the harness loose AND take a look at the pictures to see what truly shocked me.

See how my doll’s chin is pushed all the way forward to his chest? I can’t begin to tell you how much that scares me. The KeyFit that I’m using isn’t a big seat, but it is a rounded seat on the backside, so the Lite Bundleme may fit a different infant seat more favorably. But it still is going to leave slack in the harness. Adjusting the elastic that holds the Lite Bundleme to higher up on the back of the infant seat does affect the fit of the doll. The product instructions don’t specify where to place the elastic on the infant seat, simply to place it over the back of the seat. So, it’s quite feasible that a parent could over-stretch it as in the first picture in the hopes of keeping it from sliding off. Hopefully common sense comes into play and the parent sees the chin-to-chest of the baby and knows that’s not a good fit of the product.

 

Instead, if your baby must wear a warm suit, use a fleece bunting over a long-sleeved onesie. Fleece will keep your baby warm, especially with fleece blankets layered on top. Using several thin layers allows you to adjust your baby’s temperature more easily as you go from one environment to another so babe doesn’t overheat or get too cold. Some fleece suits have fold-over flaps for hands and feet coverage too. Carters and Old Navy are good places to start for fleece jammies and brands like Columbia and The North Face have the more heavy duty fleece buntings. Infant seat shower cap-style covers are pretty plentiful and come in all different colors and designs (including some really cute ones!), so you have plenty from which to choose. Remember, to be safest, when your baby is in the carseat, always keep her buckled securely and use layers for comfort. Here’s a list of shower cap infant seat covers:

JJ Cole Car Seat Cover

Jolly Jumper Sneak a Peak Infant Carseat Cover Deluxe

Jolly Jumper Arctice Sneak a Peak Infant Carseat Cover

The First Years Carseat Cover

Snugaroo Fleece Infant Car Seat Jacket/Cover and Matching Baby Hat

Babbaco Babbacover Snuggle Fleece

Kangaroo Infant Car Seat Fleece Cover

NoJo Double Zipper Baby Cover-Up

These are the JJ Cole Bundleme products I tested. The Urban Bundleme and the original Bundleme are the same, but the Urban has an upgraded outside fashion. If you’re going to use a Bundleme product, I’ve marked the safe one.

As you can see from the list above, there are lots of covers from which to choose and you can even make your own. For older toddlers and big kids, there are ponchos. The key is to make yourself aware of the dangers of loose harnesses and to know that during the most slippery driving time of the year, it’s especially important for our kiddos to be buckled up properly. Drive safely and warmly!

 

After a Crash

I’m fortunate to have only been in a few small fender-benders, all in parking lots or on streets where it was easy to pull over. I’ve often wondered what people are supposed to do when their crash happens in the middle of a busy roadway. Do you move out of traffic? Do you stay put so the police can see where the cars wound up, and therefore determine fault more easily?

My instinct, especially as a mother and safety advocate, is that I should try to get my car out of traffic, but is that the right choice?

I decided to stop wondering and called up Officer Chris Goodwin with the California Highway Patrol to get his advice.

“Our number-one priority is safety,” Officer Goodwin said. “Documentation is second.” Many accidents start off as minor property damage but turn fatal when other cars strike the vehicle or people stopped in a roadway.

Here are Officer Goodwin’s tips.

  • If you can move your car out of traffic, do it. If you’re on a busy city street, turn onto a side street or into a nearby parking lot. If you’re on a freeway, pull to the shoulder. If you’re near an exit, you can get off the freeway entirely to find a safe place to park. As soon as you do, call 911 to let them know you were in a crash and exited the freeway for safety. This will let police know where to go and will also document that you’re not trying to commit a hit-and-run.
  • If you’re in the middle of a freeway or busy street and can’t move your car, put on your flashers, keep your seatbelt on, and call 911. Do not step out into traffic! Goodwin said it’s not uncommon for people to start exchanging information right in the middle of freeway lanes. Don’t be one of those people!
  • If your car is disabled in the lane closest to the shoulder or sidewalk, exit carefully and stand where it’s safe (i.e., out of traffic lanes), preferably behind a guardrail if you’re on a freeway.
  • While you’re waiting for police to arrive, get out your license, registration, and insurance information. (And before you get in the crash, make sure you have your most current information in the car.) Goodwin said people often don’t have those ready, and it causes delays.
  • Use that camera! Almost everyone has cameras on their cell phones these days. If you do, put it to good use. While the police are taking statements, photograph all of the cars involved on all sides, even if a side doesn’t have damage. Better yet, take video and narrate as you’re doing it. Take photos or video of all the people involved, too. Goodwin said that insurance fraud is rampant, and documenting damage and the people involved will help keep other parties from claiming subsequent damage or claiming that additional people were involved. When you get home, upload the video to your computer, and burn one disk for yourself and one for your insurance company.

As for determining fault, the police can do that even after cars have been moved. They’ll look at statements from witnesses and the parties involved, and will examine crush damage, debris, and skid marks. “That’s what we do for a living,” Goodwin said. “We’ll dig and dig until we figure it out.”

Carseat Click Tip

Do you have an infant seat that you’re pulling out of storage for another child? If so, flip the bucket over and check out the harness. Some infant seats (and convertibles too!) have 2 harness lengths from which to choose—a newborn setting and a setting for larger infants/toddlers. If you’re like me, as soon as your child is done with the seat, you promptly stick it in the closet and forget about it without adjusting the straps; but, that means that that when you’re ready to use it again for a newborn, it’s set up for a larger child.

The following picture is from a Graco SnugRide manual (but it’s generic enough to work for other carseats) and it shows the 2 different loops where you can attach the harness to the metal splitter plate on the bottom of the carseat. Working on one side at a time, take the harness off the splitter plate and reattach it using the inside loop to shorten the harness. If you have one of the SnugRide models with a higher harness weight (this doesn’t apply to the SR with a 22 lbs. weight limit), you’ll also be able to adjust the harness length at where the leg straps are attached at the back of the seat. Doing this will mean you’ll be able to tighten the harness properly on a noob.